Q. 1. Give short comments (in one or two lines) on the following 20 words : (20 x 3 = 60)
(B) Acid rain
(C) Habib Tanweer
(D) Khadak Nath
(F) Male/Female gender ratio in Madhya Pradesh
(G) Green revolution
(H) Operation Flood
(I) Currency Printing Press in Madhya Pradesh
(J) Madhya Pradesh Hindi Sahitya Academy
(K) Agriculture University in Madhya Pradesh
(L) Social Forestry
(N) Special Economic Zones
(O) Joint Project of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar
(P) National Parks in Madhya Pradesh
(Q) Industrial Complexes in Madhya Pradesh
(R) Gram Swaraj Yojana
(S) Karma Dance
(T) Major Sports Stadium in Madhya Pradesh
Ans. (A) Biosphere—The biosphere consists of the entire environ-ment system. The land, the water, and the atmosphere alongwith animated or inanimated elements make biosphere, which comprises (a) Hydrosphere, (b) Lithosphere and (c) Atmosphere.
(B) Acid Rain—Due to pollution in the atmosphere it rains nitric acid and sulphuric acid with water. The onset is called acid rain. These pollutants come from industries and emit from vehicles, and are harmful for environment.
(C) Well known stage personality, Habib Tanveer died in Bhopal on 8 June, 2009. He was 85. Habib Tanveer had established ‘Naya Theatre’ in 1959. He was highly accl-aimed for his outstanding performance in ‘Agra Bazaar’ and Charandaschor. He was honoured with Padamashri, Padmabhushan and Sangeet Natak Academy award.
(D) Khadak Nath—The Khadak Nath is an Indian breed of Chicken. It is local to the Madhya Pradesh area, where it is known as Kalamansi (having blank flesh). Khadak nath is the only Black Meat Chicken breed of poultry in India. Locally known as ‘Kalamansi’ meaning, fowl having black flesh, it is a native bird of Jhabua and Dhar districts of western Madhya Pradesh, reared mainly by the tribal communities of Bhil and Bhilala. Though the flesh of this breed is black, it is considered not only a delicacy of distinctive taste, but also of medicinal value. Research has shown that this species has lower cholesterol, than white chicken, and high level of essential amino-acid as well as hormones that are required by the human body.
(E) Bio-farming—It is a farming technique which doesn’t require chemical spray to grow the plants. The plants are fed on decayed leaves, dung and other waste materials. To protect the plants from insects only indigenous insecticides are used.
(F) Sex ratio in Madhya Pradesh—Madhya Pradesh is at 23rd place as far as sex-ratio is concerned. The sex ratio is 1000 : 919 and the district with highest ratio is Balaghat (1,022).
(G) Green Revolution—During the 1960–70 decade, the traditional agriculture technique in India was replaced by modern technique to increase the production in India. Therefore, it was called ‘Green Revolution’. The credit to bring Green revolution goes to nobel Laureate Norman Borlogue. His techniques, truly gave impetus to high yields of wheat, millets and sugarcane.
(H) Operation Flood—Operation flood pertains to milk revolution in the country. It was started in 70’s to galvanize the process of milk produc-tion through milk co-operatives. It consists of many stages, whereby the system of milk production could be increased to a satisfactory level. The propounder of this project is Dr. Verghese Kurean.
(I) Currency Printing Press is major public sector industry. Currency Printing Press at Dewas in Madhya Pradesh.
(J) Established by education department govt. of Madhya Pradesh, Sahitya Academy has initiated a new project by publishing more than 1000 books on various subjects to enable the study and teaching more convenient.
(K) Jawaharlal Nehru Agri-culture University is a public univer-sity in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, specializing in the field of agriculture and its various branches. It is recognised and accredited by Univer-sity Grant Commission.
(L) Social Foresty—It is such a system as aims at recreation of community interests and environ-mental conservation. It is in practice since long. It is divided in three categories—Agriculture forestry, Rural forestry and urban forestry. The main objectives of this pro-gramme are–provide fuel, maintain the fertility of the soil and land conservation to make people aware about transplantation and help creating entertainment parks in the villages.
(M) Talc is a chemical; its chemical formula is Mg3Si4O10(OH)2, its chemical name is Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide. It is used as counter tops, electrical switch boards, carvings etc.
(N) Special Economic Zones—it is a geographical region. It has liberal economic laws. It includes a broad range of specific zone types, these are free Trade Zones, Export processing Zones, Free zones industrial estates, Free ports, Urban Enterprise zones.
(O) Bansagar Project created with the co-operation of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, is all set to irrigate vast land in Madhya Pradesh. It is based on linking of rivers Ken and Betwa and their share will be in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1.
(P) Madhya Pradesh is a land of Parks. Mostly National Parks are famous for wild lives. The National Parks in Madhya Pradesh are—
(i) Kanha National Park
(ii) Bandhvgarh National Park
(iii) Sanjay National Park
(iv) Van Vihar National Park
(v) Madhav National Park
(vi) Fossil National Park
(vii) Satpura National Park
(viii) Panna National Park
(ix) Pench National Park
(Q) Industrial Complexes in Madhya Pradesh—In Madhya Pradesh, some cities like Indore, Bhopal, Jabalpur and Gwalior are famous for their industries. Scindhia’s contribution in bringing heavy industries in Gwalior, will always be a part of long cherished dreams. The Industrial complexes in these cities are the testimony of the sharp industrial development. Steel factory in Bhilai, Heavy Electricals and Power Alcohol in Bhopal, Cotton Spinning mill in Ujjain and various industrial Estates in Sanawad, Indore and Gwalior. Besides, Indore was blessed with Indo-German tools in 1994.
(R) National ‘Gram Swaraj Yojana’ is a project to be launched by govenment with the help of World Bank to the tune of Rs. 600 crore. The project would be implemented through panchayats to raise the living standard of the poor of the poorest.
(S) Karma Dance—it is a folk dance of Madhya Pradesh. It is mainly performed by Gond, Oraon tribes. It is mostly performed to symbolize the advent of spring.
(T) In Madhya Pradesh Gwalior, Bhopal and Indore are the places where sports stadiums of inter-national standard are found. They are Usha Raje Stadium (Indore), Nehru Stadium (Indore), Tantya Tope Stadium (Bhopal), Captain Roop Singh Stadium (Gwalior)
Q. 2. Give comments in 200 words each on any four of the following subjects : (10 x 4 = 40)
(A) National Rural Employ-ment Guarantee Yojana
(B) Udyog Mitra Yojana 2004
(C) Water Conservation
(D) Tejaswini Gramin Mahila Sashaktikaran Yojana
(E) Amar Shaheed Chandra Shekhar Azad
(F) Bharat Bhavan
Ans. (A) National Rural Employ-ment Guarantee Yojana—The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, now known as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, is an Indian Job Guarantee Scheme enacted by legislation on August 25, 2005. The scheme provides a legal guarantee for one hundred days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage of Rs. 100 per day. The Central Government outlay for scheme was Rs. 39,100 cores ($ 8 billion) in February 2009-10.
It is an act and can be amended only by Parliament. The scheme started from February 2, 2006 in 200 districts, was expanded to cover another 130 districts in 2007-08 and eventually covered all 593 districts in India on April 1, 2008.
Adult members of the rural household submit their application to Gram Panchayat. The panchayat/ programme officer accepts the valid application and after due scrutiny, sends a letter of employment to the applicant. The employment will be provided within the radius of 5 km but if it is beyond the prescribed area 10% extra living allowance will be paid. It employment under the scheme is not provided within fifteen days of the receipt of the application, daily unemployment allowance will be paid to the applicant.
No discrimination between men and women is allowed under the Act. Therefore, men and women are paid the same wages. All adults can apply for employment, not just, those below the poverty line.
(B) The Udyog Mitra Yojana is a Madhya Pradesh Government’s initiative to deal with sick units in the small scale sector.
Under the scheme, public sector banks are to provide a rehabilitation package or an exit route to the sick SSI units. The State Government procedure requires names of closed units, sick units that need a rehabilitation package or an exit route. In the absence of required data there is a wide communication gap between banks, State Government and small scale industries.
Only 140 small scale units had been offered a package under the scheme so far. The M. P. Laghu Udyog Sangathan is likely to take up the issue with banks. In fact, small scale industries have witnessed an approximate 35 per cent growth in Madhya Pradesh in the last four years. The number of small scale units has increased from 1083 in 2004 to 1,469 this year. A total investment of Rs. 763·96 crore came in the small scale segment up from Rs. 588·42 crore. The total number of employ-ment has also increased from 30,112 to 35,060 in this period.
A total of 66 units were revived in all industrial areas under a scheme Udyog Mitra Yojana–2004. As many as 30 sick SSI units were revived in Mandideep industrial Area, 15 in Banmor, 2 in Borgaon, 1 in Manesi and 5 in Rewa. The President, M. P. Small Scale Industries Association, R. S. Goswami said, “Had the State Government extended the Udyog Mitra Scheme, the S.S.I. segment would have been booming in the State.
(C) Water Conservation means ‘storage’ of water to be used in future when the availability of water is scarce. Our ancient religious texts and epics give a good insight into the water storage and conservation system that prevailed in those days. Over the years rising populations, growing industrialization, and expanding agriculture have pushed up the demand for water. Efforts have been made to collect water by building, dams and reservoirs and digging wells. Some countries have also tried to recycle and desalinate water. Water conservation has become the need of the day. The idea of groundwater recharging by harvest-ing rain water is gaining ground in many cities.
The ancient method of water conservation can be traced back to the Indus Valley Civilization, that flourished along the banks of the river Indus and other. Besides, in modern era, rain water harvesting is gaining importance in many cities. This has become a very popular method of conserving water, especially in urban areas. The benefits of rain water harvesting may be summed up as increases water availability, check the declining table, environmentally friendly and prevents soil erosion and flooding especially in urban areas.
(D) For women’s economic and social empowerment, the women’s Finance and Development Corpora-tion has taken the help of Inter-national Agriculture Development Fund to implement Rs. 161 crore Tejaswini Gramin Mahila Sashaktikaran Yojana in six districts, includ-ing Balaghat, Mandla, Dindori, Tikamgarh, Chhattarpur and Panna.
Twelve thousand groups of women would be empowered under this scheme. For this eight year scheme Rs. 56·74 crore would be provided by IPED, Rs. 5·41, by the State Government and Rs. 1·27 crore from NABARD.
(E) Chandra Shekhar Sitaram Tiwari better known as Chandra Shekhar Azad was born on July 23, 1906, in Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh. He was parented by Pandit Sitaram Tiwari and Jagarani Devi. He spent most of his childhood and received primary education in Badarka village in Unnao District, U. P. He then went to the Sanskrit Pathashala at Varanasi for higher education.
Chandra Shekhar Azad was deeply troubled by the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar in 1919. He actively participated in Non-cooperation movement, launched by Mahatma Gandhi. He was arrested and received his first punishment at the age of fifteen. After suspension of the Non-coopration Movement, Azad was attracted by more aggressive and violent revolutionary ideals. He committed himself to complete independence by any means. He formed the Hindustan Socialist Republic Association and was mentor to revolutionaries such as Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Batukeshwar Dutt. He planned and executed several acts of violence against the British. He was terror to the British police. He was very good friend of Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil. They together executed many revolu-tionary activities. In 1931, when Azad was with Sukhdev in Alfred Park, Allahabad, he was spotted by one of his close accomplice, Banwari, who informed the police, to be surrounded and killed by them. The police surrounded them, Sukhdev, any how managed to escape, while Azad kept the police at bay. Finally with only one bullet left in his pistol, he shot himself, keeping his pledge to never be captured alive.
(F) Bharat Bhavan is a multi-arts complex without parallel in Bhopal, India housing a museum of the arts, an art gallery, a workshop for fine arts, a repertory theatre, indoor and outdoor auditoria, rehearsal room, and libraries of Indian poetry, classical and folk music providing interactive proximity to the verbal, the visual and the performing arts. It is a place of contemporary, arti-culation, exploration, reflection and innovation. Located near the picturesque Bada Talab of Bhopal Bharat Bhavan is a centre for innovative creativity, pursuit of classics and tradition and wide participation in a new cultural upsurge. it is an independent trust created by the legislature of the State of Madhya Pradesh. The architect of Bharat Bhavan, Charles Correa says—This art centre is located on a particularly beautiful site—a gently sloping plateau over-looking the upper across the water.
Bharat Bhavan consists of the following units—
Roopankar—It has been esta-blished with a view to seting up a historic collection of urban, folk and tribal art and is the only museum of art in India to house contemporary, urban, folk and tribal art.
Rangmandal—It is a profes-sional repertory to create a sustained theatre movement, that becomes a way of life rather than spasmodic activity.
Vagarth—It has a library of more than 7,000 books of poetry in 14 Indian languages and recordings and Video-cassettes of major poets.
Ashram—A guest hosue.
Part : One
Q. 3. Define the term ‘forest’. Classify the forests of Madhya Pradesh on the basis of composition and describe the reasons for their degradation. (5 + 10 + 10 = 25)
What are National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries ? How are these constituted ? Throw light on the problems of National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries of Madhya Pradesh. (5 + 10 + 10 = 25)
Ans. The trees in abundance are called ‘Forest’. But in common parlance, the word forest is used for the extensive area covered with dense blanket of trees and plants, grown up under natural conditions. According to Madhya Pradesh Government report of 2005, Madhya Pradesh covers the maximum area (76,013 sq. km) under forest.
Classification of Forests—The forests found in Madhya Pradesh are Tropical deciduous forests. Such types of forests are found only in the area, where rainfall is between 50 cm to 100 cm. Here the trees make their leaves fall during summer. Shee- sham, teak, Neem pipal are some of the deciduous trees, whereby a good quality of furniture wood is obtained. These forests are found in Sagar, Jabalpur, Chhindwada, Damoh, Chhatarpur, Panna, Baitul, Hos-hangabad.
Tropical Semi-deciduous for-ests—These forests are found where rainfall is between 100 cm to 150 cm. Trees like teak. Jamun, Mahua, Harra etc. are found in abundance in this area. They are found in Mandla, Balaghat, Sidhi and Shahdol.
Tropical dry Deciduous—These types of forests are found where the rainfall is between 25 cm to 75 cm. All the trees shed their leaves and their height normally ranges from 8 mts- 20 mts. Keekar, Babul, Palash, Tendu, Haldu, Siris are the main trees. They are found in Sheopur, Shivpuri, Rat-lam, Mandsaur, Neemuch, Teekam-garh, Datia, Gwalior and Khargoan.
Causes of forest degradation—
(i) Falling of trees for the want of fuel.
(ii) Too much grazing.
(iii) To feed the increasing popu-lation, forests are cleared.
(iv) Acquisition of land for establishing industries.
(v) Acquisition of land for ever increasing urbanisation.
In India, to protect wild life, two types of habitats are constructed-sanctuaries and National Parks. In animal sanctuaries, protection is provided to wild animals and birds whereas in national park the entire environment is protected, because under environment, the relation bet-ween flora and fauna is studied.
Formation of National Parks and Sancturaries—The formation of National parks and sanctuaries are done under policies envisaged in Wild life protection Act 1972. Similarly in 1980 another wild life Protection Act was formed to put ban on deforestration. It is impossible to conserve wild life without protecting forests. In the year 1988, 1991 and 1992, National Forest policy and Environment Protection Act, Wild Life Protection Act and Forest Con-servation Policy were declared. The National Parks and Sanctuaries are formed in accordance with the said Acts.
Problems of National Parks and Sanctuaries in M.P.—At present in Madhya Pradesh, there are 9 National Parks and 25 Wild life sanctuaries. The biggest problem is of indiscriminate hunting. Where, the hunt-ing is completely prohibited, the hunters take to poaching. It is surprising to note that the Ghugghu bird is at the verge of extinction. Some effective steps must immediately be taken by government to protect them.
Q. 4. What are the main sources of irrigation in Madhya Pradesh ? What is the percentage of area irrigated in the districts of Jhabua, Dindori, Mandla, Shahdol and Hoshangabad of Madhya Pradesh ? Which districts will be benefited from Bansagar, Bargi, Chambal and Indira Sagar Projects ?
(10 + 5 + 10 = 25)
What is the position of the use of non-conventional energy in Madhya Pradesh ? What are the programmes which are being implemented by the Government to encourage the use of non-con-ventional energy resources ?
(8 + 7 + 10 = 25)
Ans. Madhya Pradesh is agriculture based state. It experiences 75 to 125 cm average rainfall. Thus the means of irrigation are badly required. Madhya Pradesh has the following means of irrigation—
(1) Canals, (2) Ponds, (3) Wells.
Canals—Around 19·5% of the land is irrigated by canals. In Chambal valley, irrigation work is carried out through canals. Besides, the irrigation work in Gwalior, Bhind, Morena, Bundelkhand, Specially in Tikamgarh and Chhattarpur, is carried out through canals.
Wells—In Madhya Pradesh, 64% of the irrigation work is carried out through wells and it is maximum in western Madhya Pradesh.
Ponds—The uneven land, scares projects and land fit for ponds are responsible for the irrigation to be carried out through ponds in Madhya Pradesh. The farmers in Madhya Pradesh, construct small ponds to carry out their irrigation venture. It is estimated that about 2·1% of the land is irrigated through ponds.
Districts benefited by Projects
Ban Sagar — Rewa, Sidhi,
Chambal — Bhind, Morena,
Baragi — Jabalpur, Nar -
Indira Sagar — Khandawa.
Non-conventional sources of energy are those pre used matter which could be transformed into energy, because, unlike conventional sources, they are non-degradable. Bio- gas plant Biomass, wind energy etc. are such types of energy sources.
Madhya Pradesh has been a leading state as far as non-con-ventional energy is concerned and still efforts are being made at this level. Besides, Panchayats are being taught the importance of non-conventional sources. It is surprising that to proelectricity through un-conventional methods, experiments with mustard stalk, rice-husk, sugar waste are being carried out. The successful exploitation of such resources has placed Madhya Pradesh at second place.
The following projects are being carried out by Energy Development corporation, organised by Madhya Pradesh Government :
(a) Electricity Production with non-conventional methods.
(b) National Biogas development programme.
(c) Unified Rural Energy Pro-gramme.
(d) National Development Burner programme.
(e) Solar cell programme.
Q. 5. What are the main objec-tives of Industrial Policy 2004 of Madhya Pradesh ? How is this policy different from the Industrial Policy 1991 ? Discuss the important points of Industrial Policy 2004.
(10 + 5 + 10 = 25)
Comment on the following—
(5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = 25)
(A) Prime Minister Gram Sadak Yojana
(B) Deendayal Antyodaya Upa-char Yojana
(C) Swarn Jayanti Shahari Rojgar Yojana
(D) Rajeev Gandhi Ashraya Yojana
(E) Jawaharlal Nehru National Naveenikaran Mission
Ans. Madhya Pradesh Industrial Policy–2004 was declared by the then Commerce and Industries minister under Uma Bharati Government Kailash Chawla. The main objectives of this policies are as below—
(1) To attract the multi-nationals, credit an environment of condusive nature.
(2) To make efforts to solve problems pertaining to Industrial area.
(3) Create an industrial infrastructure.
(4) To revive the sick and closed units.
(5) To encourage food preserva-tion and not to levy any tax on agriculture products, coming into mandi from outside.
(6) In place of export corporation, Trade and Investment Facilitation Act to be made.
An Industrial policy was also declared in 1991 by Narsimha Rao. The policy aimed at the emancipation from bureaucratic set up and liberalize the economy and to remove all the restrictions on foreign investment, so that Indian economy could be brought at par with world economy. All the restrictions were to be removed and local entrepreneur was to be made free from monopoly and restrictive trade practice. Follwing are the amendments that were made during 2004—
(a) A committee headed by District Magistrate would issue clearance for projects worth 10 crores.
(b) Sick and closed units would be revived.
(c) Biotechnical projects worth Rs. 10 crore or more would be treated as Mega Projects.
(d) Facilities would be made more liberal.
(e) Herbal industries would be encouraged and units based on small forest products would be included in thrust sectors.
(f) To extend pharmaceutical industries.
(g) To produce electricity by non-conventional methods and to give to the industries.
(h) To provide labour in Industrial area with more facilities.
(A) Prime Minister Gram Sadak Yojana—Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana popularly known as ‘PMGSY’ is a scheme that was launched by the Hon’ble Prime Minsiter (then) Atal Bihari Vajpayee on December 25, 2000 to bridge the gap between the “Urban India and Rural India”. It seeks to support the States in achieving road connectivity through construction of good quality all weather roads to the rural population.
The primary objective of the ‘PMGSY’ is to provide connectivity by way of All-weather roads.
The PMGSY envisages minimal network of road i.e. network of the road that is essential to provide basic access to essential social economic services to all eligible habitations in the selected areas through atleast a single all weather road connectivity.
(B) Deen Dayal Antyodaya Upchar Yojana : M.P.—The ministry of Public Health and Family Welfare introduced on September, 25 2004, a pragmatic scheme named Deen Dayal Antyodaya Upchar Yojana.
The objective of the scheme is to provide free treatment and investiga-tion facilities to patients belonging to BPL families who are hospitalized in government hospitals. The scheme seeks to provide social security coverage to the population belonging to the lower socio-economic strata of the society and safeguard them from indebtedness arising out of illness.
The beneficiaries include — Individual, families and community members. The benefits are as under—
Free medical treatment and investigation up to a limit of Rs. 2000 per family per annum. This benefit is available only to hospitalized patients.
In case of severity of illness, the limit may be extended to Rs. 30,000 per family per annum.
The scheme is valid upto 31 Dec. 2012.
(C) Swarn Jayanti Shahari Rojgar Yojana—Swaran Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana is being implemented by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleva-tion, on all India basis through States and U.T. Governments since Decem-ber 1, 1997. this programme seeks to improve the levelihood of the urban population that lives below poverty line by promoting gainful employment. Modifications to the SJSRY scheme include a reversed funding pattern for the scheme bet-ween Centre and States, enhanced project cost ceiling in the self- employ-ment category and the improved average expenditure ceiling per trainee in the skill training of the urban poor component scheme.
(D) Rajiv Gandhi Asharya Yojana—Rajiv Gandhi Ashraya Yojna is special scheme which has been launched for the urban poor. under this scheme plots will be distributed to the urban poor for carrying out economic activities and thus bringing them above the poverty line. A special fund has been created for the development of Jhuggi basties.
(E) Jawahar Lal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission—Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) was launched in Decem-ber 2005 to take care of Urban infra-structure projects including water supply sanitation, sewerage, solid waste management, road network, urban transport and re-development of inner cities areas.
About 260 projects worth over Rs. 22,000 crore have been approved under JNNURM since its inception to provide funds to overhaul infrastructure. Four states account for 60% of the projects under the mission. Maharashtra has the largest number of projects (48 projects) worth Rs. 6600 crore, Gujarat is close second with 44 projects followed by Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka having 33 and 32 approved projects respectively.
Bulk of the approved funds are for water supply, sewerage works and drainage having share of 34%, 26% and 11·4% respectively in the total approved funds mission has a target to pump in atleast Rs. 100,000 crore in the 63 identified cities over its seven year term (2005–2012) to ensure basic services to a fast-rising urban population.
Q. 6. Comment on the composi-tion and functions of the following organisations— (5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = 25)
(A) Zillah Yojana Samiti
(B) Madhya Pradesh State Sports Council
(C) State Wildlife Board
(D) State Information Commis-sion
(E) Lokayukta Organisation
What do you understand by ‘Water Pollution’ ? What are the main sources of Water Pollution ? What efforts should be done to check water pollution ?
Ans. (A) Zillah Yojana Samiti—Zillah Yojana Samiti or District Plann-ing Committee is a Government organisation to look into the needs and facilities to be provided to a particular district. The committee is headed by a state minister and supported by DM as member secretary and other elected members. The main objectives of the committee are as below—
(a) Identification of local needs and objectives within the frame work of national and state level objectives.
(b) Collection, compilation and updation of information relating to natural and human resources of the district to create a sound database for decentralised planning and pre-paration of district and block resources profile.
(c) Listing and mapping of amenities at village, block and district level.
(d) Determination of policies, programmes and priorities for development of the district in order to ensure maximum judicious utilisa-tion and exploitation of available natural resources.
(e) Preparation of an employ-ment plan for the district.
(B) Madhya Pradesh State Sports Council—Basically this council is advisory in nature which recognises sports institutions and boards. It also recommends financial matters and awards to sports. On 1st Sept. 1984, the then sports and youth welfare minister Shravan Patel declared the reorganisation of the council, which will have 37 members.
Objectives of the Council
(1) To fetch planning regarding sports and all round health develop-ment in the state.
(2) To inculcate discipline and character building among youths.
(3) To bring co-ordination among sports institutions.
Besides, the council gives scholar-ship worth Rs. 10,000/- per annum to selected outstanding sports persons.
(C) State Wild Life Board—Madhya Pradesh is known as the state of forests. To protect the wild life, the state government estabilished State Wild life Board. The objects of the Board are to provide wild animals with natural environment, to collect data regarding their population and to take care of them. In pursuance of the need of their welfare and protection. National Park Act was brought into force. Madhya Pradesh has 9 National Parks and 25 wild life sanctuaries, and Madhya Pradesh Wild Life Board provides protection to the wild animals.
(D) State Information Com-mission—The Right to Information Act got its way into the entire country barring the state of Jammu and Kashmir on Oct. 12, 2005. According to the Article of the Act every state is bound to have Information Commission. Consequently Madhya Pradesh formed the commission on 22nd Aug., 2005. Further, according to the Article 15 of the Act, the commission will have one chief Information Commissioner and ten information commissioners, who will deep experience in mass-media and will have excellent social life. It’s head office is at Bhopal.
State Information Commission is equipped with the right, to five a public information office with Rs. 250 per day to maximum 25000 for not giving information duly asked or does not except an application form for the same without assigning any proper reason what so ever it may be.
(E) Lokayukta Organisation—The Lokayukta Organisation in Madhya Pradesh came into existence in Feb. 1982, after the Lokayukta Act 1981 was enacted by the State Legislature. Attempts to create an organisation on the live of ‘Ombuds-man’ started way back in mid 70’s. The Lokayukta Organisation is totally free from the executive influence.
The organisation is headed by Lokayukta. A person who has been a Judge of the Supreme Court of India or Chief Justice of any High court or retired Judge of the Supreme Court of India. There can be one or more up-lokayuktas also. The organisation is divided into four functional wings—
(1) Administrative and enquiry section.
(2) Special Police establishment.
(3) Technical Cell.
(4) Legal Section.
(5) District Vigilance Committees.
As far as scope and jurisdiction is concerned, the Act pertaining to Lokayukta covers public servants of all categories, making a few exceptions like like speaker, Deputy Speaker but has a jurisdiction to inquire into complaints against the Chief Minister, Deputy Chief Minister, Minister, Leader of Opposition and Officers of the rank of Secretary and above.
Ans. Water pollution is contamination of water through foreign bodies. These bodies tend to destroy the purity of water and render it unfit to be used as drinking water. There are various sources of water pollution—
Chemical Waste from Industries—This is one major reason of water pollution. Most of the chemical industries or otherwise, have lost of get chemical waste to be disposed of. These chemicals are drained into canals and rivers, thus render the water contaminated.
Sewage System—Sewage system also plays an important role to create water pollution Domestic sewage pollutes the water to a con-siderable extent, drinking of which may cause total effects.
Thermal Pollution—Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacture.
Oil Pollution—Oceans are polluted by oil on a daily basis from oil spills, routine shipping, run offs and dumping since oil cannot dissolve in water and form a thick sludge in the water.
Prevention—Since water contamination comes from many sources and has numerous effects, every aspect of water pollution needs to be addressed—
(1) There should be a proper outlet of chemical waste.
(2) Sewage system should have proper drainage system.
(3) Oil pollution should be checked properly. Spilling of oil should immediately be stopped.
(4) Thermal pollution should immediately be checked through afforestation.
Part : Two
Q. 7. Write name of any one of the compositions of the following poets and also comment on their subject matter and writing style—
(C) Subhadra Kumari Chauhan
(D) Dr. Shivmangal Singh ‘Suman’
(E) Pandit Bhavani Prasad Mishra
Describe the subject matter, period of writing and writing style of composition of Singaji and Ghagh.
Ans. (A) Banabhatta—Banabhatta was a Sanskrit scholar and poet of India. He was the Asthana Kavi (Court Poet) in the court of King Harshavardhana, who reigned in the years C606–647 CE in North India. His principal works include a biography of Harsha, the Harsha-charita and an earliest novel of international repute, Kadambari. He was born to Chitrabhanu and Rajadevi in the village of Pritikuta on the bank of the Hiranyavahu (the present day Son river) in a Magh Brahmin family of Vatsyayana Gotra Bana, led a wandering life after the death of his parents. Soon he returned to his native village. Here, on a summer day, on receiving a letter from Krishna, a cousin of King Harsha, he met the king when he was camping near the town of Manitara. After receiving him with mock signs of anger the king showed him much favour.
When Bana returned from the King Harsha’s court, his cousin pressed him to write narrative on the life of King Harsha. He agreed but decided to write only a part of his life as he was not sure, whether he could do the slightest justice to the remark-able career of the king.
Banabhatta is better known for his outstanding literary work ‘Kdambari’. There is a well-known, interesting statement in Sanskrit, “Kdambari rasajnnm hrop in a rochate” means, while savoring (the contents of) Kdambari readers do not find interest in eating food. The greatness of Banabhatta is considered in superlative terms as a poet and writer in Sanskrit. His use of metaphor and simile has been so artistic and encompassing that it is said ‘Jagat Chhista Banabhatta’, or “the whole world has been tasted by Banabhatta.”
(B) Padmakar—Padmakar is a famous poet of Riti-Kaal of Hindi Literature. His full name was Padmakar Bhatt. He belonged to a family of scholars and poets, so, his family was called ‘Kavishwar’. They were patronized by the courts of Panna, Gwalior, Bundi, Udaipur and Jaipur. His father, Mohanlal was a brahmin of great repute.
Padmakar was born in 1753 AD. in Madhya Pradesh. He was a Scholar of Nitishastra and an excellent writer, who wrote on the topics of bravery, love and devotion. He had an excep-tional command over Hindi langu-age. His expressions were mostly lively, natural realistic and sweet, in fact appropriate to the context.
Some of the famous works of Padmakar are Jagatvinod, Padma-bharan, Prabodh Pachasa. Himmat-bahadur, Virudawali and Ganga Lahari. As a typical writer of the period, Padmakar mostly wrote about Krishna’s life, emphasizing more on the Shirngaric aspects, his leela, his relation with gopis, and description of the beauty of Radha. His couplets were predominantly about Bhakti, means devotion.
(C) Subhadra Kumari Chauhan—She was an Indian poetess of great repute. She was famous for her emotionally charged Hindi songs. Born in Nihalpur village in Allahabad District in Uttar Pradesh, she initially studied in a Girls’ School in Allahabad and passed Middle School Examina-tion in 1919. After her marriage to Laxman Singh Chauhan of Khandwa in the same year, she moved to Jabalpur. In the year 1921, she joined the Non-cooperation Movement and was the first woman Satyagrahi to court arrest in Nagpur.
She has authored a number of popular works in Hindi poetry. Her most famous composition is ‘Jhansi-Ki Rani’, an emotionally charged poem describing the life of Rani Laxmibai. The poem is one of the most recited and sung poems in Hindi Literature. Her other works include Veeron Ka Kaisa Ho Basant, Rakhi ki Chunauti and Vida, openly talk about the freedom movement. Bikhare Moti, Unmadini and Seedhe-Saadhe-Chitra have no parallel even today.
(D) Dr. Shivmangal Singh ‘Suman’— Dr. Shivmangal Singh Suman was a noted Hindi poet and academician.
He was born on Aug. 5, 1915 at Jhagarpur, Unnao district in Uttar Pradesh. He was a leading Hindi writer and poet. He did M.A. and Ph.D. in Hindi from Benaras Hindu University. the university also honoured him with a D.Litt. in 1950.
Suman worked as the Vice Chancellor of Vikram University (Ujjain) during 1968–78, the Vice- President of Uttar Pradesh Hindi Sansthan, Lucknow; Press and cultural attache. Indian Embassy, Kathmandu (Nepal) during 1956–61, and the President, Association of Indian Universities (New Delhi) during 1977. He was the Executive President, Kalidas Academy, Ujjain until he died of heart attack on Nov. 27, 2002.
Some of his outstanding works were—Mitti ki Baarat, Hillol, Jeevan Ke Gaan. He was a man with power-ful expression. He had an exceptional command on Hindi. upon his death the then Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee, said “Dr. Shiv Mangal Singh ‘Suman’ was not only a powerful signature in the field of Hindi poetry, but he was also the custodian of the collective conscious-ness of his time. His creations not only expressed the pain of his own feelings, but were also fearless.
(E) Pt. Bhawani Prasad Mishra—Pt. Bhawani Prasad Mishra was very powerful signature of modern Hindi Literature. He was born in the year 1913, in Village Tigariya of Distt. Hoshangabad, Madhya Pradesh. He contributed his style of common man’s language through his poetry. He started writing his poems at the very early age. He wrote his first poem when he was in High School. During his college days, he wrote many of his famous poems to stun the audience. A complete Gandhian, whatever he wrote, had the complete reflection of Gandhian philosophy. His firstever collection ‘Geet Farosh’ was very popular due to its amazing style. The simplicity was the hallmark of his poetry. He used to take things in a very light manner, but expressed them in a very persuasive way. He died at the age of 72 in 1985. He had written Sannata, Satpura Ke Jungle, Geet Farosh Chakit Hai Dukha and Andheri Kavitayen.
Ans. Sant Singaji—Singaji came from Nimar and was born in 1574 in Khajoor, small village in Badwami. He is known as the contemporary of Sant Kabir. like Kabir, he wrote some couplets and his devotional songs repeated expresses human body as a temple, and the God lives there only. He believed in unattributive concept and whatever he created in local dialect of Nimar is enough for the skyrocketting reputation of Nimar. He was completely engrossed in an unattributive concept of God. His thoughts and philosophy were akin to those Kabir. He wrote about agri-culture, family relations and spread his philosophy among the masses.
Ghagh—Ghagh is famous in North India for his unique style of putting his philosophy. Although, the testimony to his life is obscure but little such is known that he was born in Kannauj in 1753. He was Ganga-pari Brahmin and was called Dubey. He also contributed by his strange philosophical couplets, written about agriculture to the benefit of a commonman. He used his pen on seasons, character of agriculture, fertilizer, seeds, and pets. Surp-risingly whatever he wrote during those days turned out to be true. In the age of science; a huge section treats him as its guide and mentor.
Q. 8. Describe the area, subject matter, singing style and the occasion of the following Folk songs— (5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = 25)
(A) Bharthari (B) Pandwani
(C) Masanya (D) Aalha
Describe the area, occasion and dancing style of the following folk dances— (5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = 25)
(A) Rai (B) Garba
(C) Bhagoria (D) Dadaria
Ans. (A) Bharthari—‘Bharthari’ is a kind of folk song that is sung by the bards of Chattisgarh in the memory of Raja Bharthari. It tells the story of Raja Bharthari. The singer alongwith loud orchestration, narrates the story with free movements of his eyes, head, hand and moves across the stage. In fact Raja Bharthari was the King of Ujjain. He belonged to Nath Panth, abound in the Indian folklore of Haryana, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Chattisgarh and West Bengal.
(B) Pandwani—Pandwani is a folk ballad form performed predominantly in Bihar and Chattisgarh. It describes the story of Pandavas, the leading characters in the epic Mahabharata. The artist in the Pandwani narration consist of a lead artist and some supporting singers. The main artist narrates one episode after another from the epic in a very forceful manner. Occasionally, he or she also breaks out into a dance and sings along the rythm produced by the ektara held in his/her hand. There are two styles of narration in Pandwani : Vedamati and Kapalik. The chief exponent of Pandwani is Teejanbai.
(C) Masanya—In Nimad, Mad-hya Pradesh, Masanya is sung at the death. It is a traditional song to be sung for the mortality of the soul. Masanya is sung in groups with musical instruments like Jhanjh, Mridang and Ektara. The philosophical concept of Masanya is that soul is considered as bride whereas body as groom.
(D) Aalha—Aalha is a ballad very popular in the Budelkhand region but its singers are spread beyond too. It narrates the tales of two warrior brothers—Aalha and Udal who were in the service of Piramal Mahoba. Its singing style is very dynamic and full of the flavour of war. Beginning with a prayer to Devi or Goddess, renditions include various incidents from this ballad. Style of singing differs from region to region, but it is sung in the monsoon months. Villagers gather at village chaupal and Aalha singers, always men, take centre stage.
(E) Vasdeva—Vasdeva are traditional singers of Baghelkhand, known as Harbole. They are basically story tellers. They are also called surmon singer, because of their narration of Shravan Kumar. They sing various stories. They wander from one place to another. They also tell the stories of Karna, Mordwaj Gopichand, Bhar-thari, Bholebaba, and Ramayan. They wear yellow cloths and keep the statue of Shri Krishna on their head to pay reverence.
(A) Rai—Rai is a very colourful dance of Bundelkhand. It is a strange combination of gallantry and beauty. This famous folkdance, comprises, fast and electrifying movements and adornment. This animated form of dance establishes such a closeness and afinity that it becomes difficult to restrain oneself from being a part of the dance. This dance is performed on the occasion of child birth and marriage celebration. Some when wishes are fulfilled, Rai is performed. Shri Prakash Yadav and Shri Ramsahai Pandey are the well renowned Rai dancers.
(B) Garba—Garba is an Indian form of dance that originated in the Gujarat region. It is more similar to Western folk dance than to the presentational style of India of Indian classical. The name Garba comes from the Sanskrit term Garba (womb) and Deep (a small earthen lamp). Many traditional garbas have similarities to other spiritual dances. Traditionally it is performed during the nine-day Hindu festival Navaratri. Either the lamp or else an image of the Goddess Amba is placed in the middle of the concentric as an object of veneration. People dance around the center bending sideways at every step their arms making sweeping gestures each movement ending in a clap.
(C) Bhagoria—The tribes of the Gond and Baiga take to this dance form called Bhagoria. Each Gond melody is sung to several sets of verses–that is, a melody is sung to one set of verses at one time and to quite different set of verses at another. The rythm and melody remain the same. The body movement changes everytime and the tapping of feet creates hypnotic atmosphere. In fact this dance form can be seen during the Bhagoria Haat festival, which is celebrated in the month of March.
(D) Dadaria—Baiga tribes, although do not celebrate Dussherah, yet can Vijaydashmi, since this form of dance began, it is known as Dussherah or Dadaria dance. It is considered to be a gate way to all the dance forms. On the day of Dussherah, dance from one village go to other village, where they are welcomed by the female dadaria dancers and folk singers. On this occassion, baiga females choose, their bride groom. This dance is also known as the expression of love.
(E) Dadar—It is a famous dance form of Bundelkhand, and is sung on the occasion of festivity. Mostly it is sung by males but sometimes males in the getup of females sing and dance they tie up ‘ghungaroos’ and show different gestures through the movements of eyes, waist and foot. Kol, Kotwar, Kahar, are the tribes known for Dadar culture.
Q. 9. What do you understand by Scheduled tribe ? What is the per-centage of Scheduled tribe popula-tion in Jhabua, Mandla, Dindori, Shahdol and Bhind districts of Madhya Pradesh ? Describe the schemes being implemented by the Government for the development of Scheduled tribes. (5 + 5 + 15 = 25)
Indicate the distribution, origin, physical features, dressing, living style and marriage system of the following tribes—
(5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = 25)
(A) Bhil (B) Baiga
(C) Shariya (D) Bharia
Ans. In common parlance scheduled Tribe is a class of human being who, being far from the rural and urban culture, live their lives as per their own norms and traditions. They do not have any knowledge about the development of the nation or do they care about the human development. Some tribes even today, live in seminude conditions and get their food through hunting. They are called scheduled tribes because they are enlisted in the Indian constitution.
|Distt.||Population||Population of Sch.Tribes||Percentage|
The Indian government, in order to bring Scheduled Tribes into the mainstream of the nation has provided them with myraids of facilities such as voting rights, reservation in education and services and social security. The government has succeeded to great extent, in its efforts.
(A) Bhil—Bhils are tribal groups of Central India. they speak Bhil languages. Bhils are scheduled tribes concentrated in the States of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan in Western and Central India, as well as in Tripura in far Eastern India, on the border with Bangladesh. The Ghoomar dance is one well-known aspect of Bhil culture. It may be noted here that Lord Rama appears in a Bhil myth where there has been a flood that wiped out humanity and Ram suggested how it could be repopu-lated. In feudal and colonial times, many Bhils were employed by the Ruling Rajputs in various capacities e.g., as Shikaris because of their knowledge of the terrain.
(B) Baiga—Baiga is a tribe found in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand States of India. The largest number of Baiga is found in Chuk in Mandla district and Balaghat districts of Madhya Pradesh. They have sub-castes—Bijhwar, Narotia, Bharotiya, Nahar, Rai, Bhaina and Kadh Bhaina. The Baiga tribes practise shifting cultivation in forest area. The tribe in Madhya Pradesh is known for its unique culture. They do not interact with the other tribes like the Gonds believe in a hand-to-mouth existence and do not try to access education. They never plough the earth because as they say, it would be like scratching the breast of their mother.
(C) Sahariya—Sahariya is the only primitive tribe of Rajasthan. It resides in the Shahabad and Kishan-ganj Panchayat Samitis of Baran district. They are mostly under privileged group. they are basically Bhil. The name Sahariya is basically derived from the Arabian word Sehara or wilderness. The Muslim rulers found them in jungle a gave them their present name Sahr which means ‘Jungle’ and accordingly they came to be called Sahariya meaning residents of Jungle. Even the absence of genuine historical account it may be stated that Shariyas have been one of the largest settlers in Rajasthan. Rajasthan Government has anno-unced this area as a Sahariya region. Sahariya live in infrastructurally weak and remote regions not well connected through road/bridge net-work even now.
(D) Bharia—Bharia is one of interesting tribes of Madhya Pradesh in India. The Bharias live in Patalkot which is completely isolated valley some 400 metres below Tama in Chhindwara district of Madhya Pradesh. This valley is the source of Dudhi river, Patalkot is totally inaccessible by road and one enters along a footpath only. There are hundreds of medicinal plant species in the Patalkot valley the Bharias have a deep knowledge of the herbs and medicinal plants growing within their valley and the herbal healers from Bharia community are known as Bhagats.
(E) Panika—Panika is Dravidean tribal group settled in the Central India. They primarily reside in the Datia, Panna, Rewa, Satna, Shahdol and Tikamgarh in Madhya Pradesh. The tribe is specially known as Panika. Agriculture is their main occupation. Rice, Wheat, chic-peas, sorghum corn sesame and crops cultivated the tribes members are experts in weaving colourful hand-made village watchmen, forest guards, teachers and businessmen. Panikas are organized into a number of groups. The major among them are Kabirpanthi. They live in ethnic villages outside the Gond, the Baiga and the Pardhi.
A number of village deities are worshipped by these people.
Q. 10. Describe in short the role of the following freedom fighters in the freedom struggle of the country— (5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = 25)
(A) Jhansi Ki Rani Laxmibai
(B) Tantya Tope
(C) Rani Avantibai
(D) Raja Bakhtawar Singh
(E) Ganjan Singh Korku
Where are the following places located in Madhya Pradesh ? What is their Historical and Archaeological importance ? How could these places be reached ?
(5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = 25)
(A) Caves of Udaigiri
Ans. (A) The Rani (Queen) of Jhansi : Laxmibai—Originally named Manikarnika at birth (Nicknamed Manu) she was born to a Maha-rashtrian Kharhade Brahmin family on 19th Nov. 1835 at Dwadashi, district Satara. She lost her mother at the age of four, consequently, got her education at home. Her father Moropant Tambey worked at the court of Peshwa Baji Rao II at Bithur. She was married to Gangadhar Rao, the king of Jhansi at the age of 14. After her marriage she was given the name Laxmibai. She studied self-defence, horse riding and even formed her own army of her female friends.
After the death of her own son, Rani adopted Damodar Rao. Lord Dalhousie, installing the Doctrine of Lapse, and forebade Rao to acquire the throne of Jhansi. This infuriated Rani and compelled her to fight against British forces in 1857. She fought bravely but could not survive the betrayal meted out by her own acquaintances. She died on 18 June, 1858 during the battle of Gwalior.
(B) Tantya Tope (1814–1859)—Ramchandra Pandurang Tope is also known as Tantya Tope. He was the Indian Leader in the first war of Independence of 1857 and was considered one of the finest generals. He was born in Yeola village of Maharashtra. He was the only son of Pandurang Rao and his wife Rukhmabai, an important noble at the court of Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao II. His father shifted his family with the Peshwa to Bithur where his son became the most intimate friend of the Peshwa’s adopted son, Nana Dhondu Pant. (known as Nana Sahib) and Maharaja Madhav Singhji.
In 1851, when Lord Dalhousie deprived Nana Sahib of his father’s pension, Tantya Tope also became a sworn enemy of the British. When the political storm was gaining momentum, he became the Commander-in-Chief of Nana Sahib’s forces. After losing Gwalior to the British, Tope launched a successful guerrilla cam-paign in the Sagar and Narmada region. The British forces failed to subdue him for over a year. He was however, betrayed into the hands of British by his trusted friend Man Singh. He was captured on April 7, 1859 and executed at the gallows on 8 April 1859, in Shivpuri town of Madhya Pradesh.
(C) Rani Avantibai—Rani Avantibai was the wife of Vikramaditya Singh, the ruler of the Indian state of Ramgarh. When he died, leaving his wife with no heir, the British placed Ramgarh under their administration. Avantibai vowed to fight the British to regain her land and her throne. She raised an army of four thousand and personally led it against British in 1857, when, after a few months’ struggle, she saw that her defeat was imminent she killed herself with her own sword.
(D) Raja Bakhtawar Singh—King of Amjhera was the first King from Malwa region who raised the banner of revolt against the company rule. He fought bravely when British army under the leadership of Capt. Hachinson attacked Achnera fort where they were to supress the revolt. Raja Bakhtawar ‘resisted their’ attempts but due to deceitful act of an ally he was arrested on Nov. 11, 1857 and was hanged on Feb. 10, 1859 in Indore.
(E) Ganjan Singh Korku—The tribal people of Bastar could not bear the forest policy of Britishers. They raised the banner of revolt against them in 1910. In the year 1920, they joined civil disobedience movement started by Mahatma Gandhi. In 1930 Ganjan Singh, alongwith thousands of revolutionaries reached Banjaridhal, where after an encounter with police he was arrested and punished with life imprisonment.
Ans. (A) Caves of Udaigiri—Udaygiri caves are situated in Vidisha district of Madhya Pradesh in India. These caves are at a distance of 4 kilometre from Vidisha and 13 kilometer from Sanchi. Udaygiri is word of Sanskirit language meaning sunrise hills. These are a group of rock-cut caves of Sanskirit language meaning sunrise hills. These are a group of rock-cut caves sanctuaries carved into a sandstone hill that stands sentinel like on the horizon. An inscription in one of these states that it was produced during the reign of Chandragupta II (382-401 AD) thus dating these caves to 4th–5th century AD.
(B) Bandhavgarh National Park—Bandhavgarh National Park is spread at Vindhya Hills in Madhya Pradesh. It consists of a core area of 105 square kilometre and a buffer area of approximately 400 square kilometre. Bandhavgarh National Park was the former hunting preserve of Maharaja of Rewa and at present is a famous natural hub for white tigers, now a major attraction. At the centre of the park is the Bandhavgarh hill rising 811 metres above sea level and surrounding it are sloping valleys.
(C) Bhimbetka—The sprawling caves of Bhimbetka are located about 45 kilometre north-east of Bhopal, the State capital of Madhya Pradesh. Situ-ated along the Bhopal–Hoshangabad highway these caves bear proximity to Bhiyapura village in Raisen district. the northern fringes of the ancient Vindyachal ranges are home to the extraordinary rock shelters and painting, its awesome rocks for lifting the ancient treasure within embedded amidst lush greenery in dense forests the caves were discovered in 1957–58.
(D) Hinglajgarh—Hinglajgarh or Hinglaj fort is an ancinet fort situated near village Navali in Bhanpur Tehsil (Mandsaur) district of Madhya Pradesh. Its coordinates are latitude 25∞30¢ N and longitude and 65∞ 31¢ East. There are various artistic sculptures of various periods in this fort. the Nandi and Uma-Maheshwar sculptures were sent from here to France and Washington for display in India festivals and left a mark at International level. The Hinglajgarh had been centre of excellence in craft- manship of sculptures for about 800 years. the statues recovered from this fort are from Guptas period to Parmara period.
(E) Muktagiri—Muktagiri Siddh Kshetra is a situated in the lap of the Satpuda Mountain range and it is surrounded by beautiful natural vegetation. It is ancient Siddha and Atishaya Kshetra. Its another name is also Mandhagiri or Medhagiri. According to Prakrit Nirvan Kand and other texts Muktagiri is a place of attainment of Nirvan and about 3 and half crores of Muniraj have done meditation and attained salvation from here. The Samovsharan of 10th Jain Teerthankar Bhagwan Sheetal-nath also arrived here and so it became sacred by foot-steps of Bhagwan Sheetalnath.