Friday, November 11, 2011

CTET Developmental Psychology

Developmental Psychology

Developmental psychologists generally adopt one of two approaches to studying human development. Some developmental psychologists focus on the changes and influences that occur during specific stages of life. This “ages and stages” approach typically divides the life course into eight age-related periods. These are (1) the prenatal period, from conception to birth; (2) infancy, from birth to age 2; (3) early childhood, ages 2 to 6; (4) middle childhood, ages 6 to 12; (5) adolescence, ages 12 to 19; (6) early adulthood, ages 19 to 40; (7) middle adulthood, ages 40 to 60; and (8) late adulthood, ages 60 and beyond. Researchers using this approach study how development unfolds within each stage. Such a strategy reveals how developmental changes within each stage relate to each other—such as how cognitive growth facilitates social understanding in young children—but it sometimes neglects how these influences are maintained from one stage to the next.
The other main approach to the study of human development focuses on specific aspects of development across the life span. This “topical” approach divides human development into different areas of growth, including physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and personality development. Such an approach enables scientists to understand how certain influences, such as emotional attachments to others, are important throughout life. However, it sometimes focuses on one aspect of development to the neglect of others. Thus, each approach has advantages and disadvantages.
This article discusses some of the major topics that developmental psychologists study. These are physical development, cognitive development, social and emotional development, personality development, and moral development.
A  Physical Development
The study of physical development focuses on the growth of the brain, body, and physical capabilities, along with the psychological implications of this growth. Early in life, the brain and body grow remarkably in size and sophistication, leading to rapid increases in sensory ability and muscular strength and coordination. These changes provide a foundation for equally remarkable advances in cognition, emotion, and sociability. Late in life, health problems and physical changes may lead to declines in mental speed and other abilities and to changes in mood and sociability.
Scientists are discovering, however, that physical development throughout life does not produce inevitable psychological changes. Rather, the psychological effect of physical changes is largely determined by the way in which an individual interprets and responds to them. One example is the influence of puberty on adolescents. Despite society’s perception that hormonal changes in puberty cause adolescent turmoil, self-consciousness, and rebelliousness, careful studies of adolescents reveal that the psychological impact of puberty depends on a variety of factors. These include the timing of puberty (whether it is early or late in relation to peers), cultural values about the meaning of sexual maturity (including media portrayals of adolescence), and the warmth of family relationships, especially the relationship between the teenager and the parent of the same sex.
Although physical development usually proceeds normally, a variety of environmental factors can adversely affect it. Poor nutrition, exposure to harmful viruses, drugs, and environmental hazards (including lead and pesticides), and enduring physical stress can imperil healthy growth beginning from conception. Maintaining good health promotes optimal physical and psychological growth throughout life.
B  Cognitive Development
Cognitive development concerns the growth of the mind throughout life. One of the challenges of studying cognitive development is that there are so many aspects of mental growth, including the development of memory, perception, logical reasoning, problem-solving skill, numerical understanding, intelligence, and hypothetical thinking. Language development includes the development of vocabulary, grammar, the pragmatics of language use, and bilingualism. Brain development, or developmental neuroscience, is another major topic of study.
The questions that guide research on cognitive development vary depending on the age group being studied. Studies of infancy investigate how very young children, whose minds are still quite immature, can effortlessly achieve so much understanding of the world. Are innate learning processes at work? Is rapid brain growth the reason? Developmental psychologists use cleverly designed experiments to explore what infants know and when and how they achieve understanding. Studies of older adults explore how the mind adapts to the changes in sensory ability and mental speed that accompany aging. Do some features of mental functioning improve in later life while others decline? Can older adults avoid or reverse age-related changes in mental functioning through changes in lifestyle or through training? To answer such questions, researchers are studying the mental performance of older adults with different backgrounds and lifestyles.

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“Current Affairs” and “General Knowledge” cover many topics like from economy to sports or education to politics, or even technology to automobiles. In every second some issues are happening around the world in these sectors, and to accumulate the excerpt of some highlighted news, and memorize it is a good plan to prepare current affairs and GK.

Some Important Tips to Follow:

Read Newspapers regularly

We all know that “Old is Gold”, same thing applies here too. We need to make a habit of reading newspapers regularly. I’ll suggest you to read more than one newspaper. It will be better if you read one newspaper of your mother language, and other of English. Some useful newspapers are “The Times of India”, “The Hindu”, “The Telegraph” etc. You need to start this habit at least 6 months before the actual exam that will help you to get access to all the important events of that period of time.

You need to keep an eye on what’s happening around you in your country and world as well. Trust me guys, you will surely find it interesting after several days. We all know that staying updated is always a good idea, as it will stand you apart from the rest.

Read Magazines thoroughly

This is another great option to prepare the subject we are talking about. There are many leading magazines that focus on current affairs and General Knowledge. You need to buy it from your local magazine seller, and start reading it thoroughly. These magazines beautifully categorize the articles with its genres to make it interesting to read on. Some of the useful magazines are Pratiyogita Darpan andManorma.

Try to read some business magazines and sports magazines too along with a general magazine. This will increase your chances of cracking the competitive exams with ease. Some useful business magazines areBusiness Today, Business Line etc.

Follow News Channels

You will need to follow news channels at least once a day. Now most of the leading news channels are active for 24*7. You need to pick up a suitable time for yourself to watch any favorite news channel of yours. You can watch ABP News, NDTV, Times Now, ET Now, Zee News etc. Try to go through all the breaking and highlighted news, and make it a habit.

I know that watching news channels for long will bore you, so I’ll suggest you to allocate only 30 minutes for it in a whole day. All the leading ones shows the glimpses of all important events of the day quite frequently, so 30 minutes will be enough for you to boost up your current affairs and GK knowledge.

Maintain a Diary

My teacher used to tell me that whenever you learn something try to write it down in your diary, as it will help you to memorize it in a better manner. He is so right, as this method helped me a lot to score good marks in every exam that I appeared for. As I already mentioned before that a lot of events are occurring in the country and around the world, so it is easily understandable that it is not easy to remember everything. It’s always a superb idea to maintain a diary of current events.

You need to update this diary on a daily basis with all the events that you consider as important ones. This diary will become quite useful for the revision part, as it will provide you information about all the important events at a place. You should keep revising the diary frequently, as it will help you to memorize important names, dates, awards etc.

Channelize your Preparation Accordingly

All the competitive exams are not same, as all of them have different pattern, even when it comes to the same topic as ‘Current Affairs’ or ‘GK’. For example for civil services exam, you need to give importance on events of National value. On the other scenario, in matter of bank job exam, the focus should be on the news on banking sectors, and economic and business news.

Thus I’ll suggest you to prepare as per the exams you are appearing for, as channelizing your preparation according to the pattern of the exam will accelerate your chance of getting selected.

Use Internet Resources

Google, YouTube and Wikipedia are my favorite teachers’; one of my friends told me this once. This is quite true indeed, so you should use all the available online resources to study current affairs and GK for exams. For example this blog is all about “Current Affairs”, so you can check this blog regularly by subscribing to us (check the sidebar for subscription options). You can actively take part some forums that are focusing on current events. The good part is you can follow the websites of all leadingnewspapers online if you don’t have enough time to read newspapers.

Use Social Networking Sites for Good

Believe me or not you can surely use social networking sites to your benefits. Especially to prepare current affairs and General knowledge Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and StumbleUpon may help you a lot. You can join some Facebook pages, or follow some twitter accounts that are related to current affairs. You can join our Facebook Page too for this matter, or connect with me at LinkedIn or circle me in Google Plus for all the information on recent happenings to boost up your General Knowledgeability.

Give Priority to your Strength

We usually find difficulties when we try to learn everything at once. In that process basically we study a lot, but remember a little. We need to first select our strength areas for our preparation. Try to givepriority to your strength areas. It may be Sports, economy, Government Affairs or technology. Suppose you are applying for Bank exams, then you should prepare industry related news. Along with that you may pick any 2-3 areas of your strength like sports or technology. You need to prepare these sections to the utmost level. I can assure you that these strategies will help you to score much better in Current Affairs section.

Participate in Online Quizzes

You should participate in some free quizzes that are available online to evaluate yourself. For this matter you can easily access our “Quiz Section”. This will give you proper idea whether you are ready for the big exam day or not. As an added factor it will also provide you confidence i.e. very much essential. You can download Monthly-wise current affairs questions from Here.